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时间:10-16来源:村村新闻作者:村村新闻

猴头菇畸形怎么办

猴头菇(学名:Hericium

erinaceus),是中国传统的名贵菜肴,肉嫩、味香、鲜美可口。是四大名菜(猴头、熊掌、海参、鱼翅)之一。有“山珍猴头、海味燕窝”之称。这种齿菌科的菌类,菌伞表面长有毛茸状肉刺,长约1~3厘米,它的子实体圆而厚,新鲜时白色,干后由浅黄至浅褐色,基部狭窄或略有短柄,上部膨大,直径3.5~10厘米,远远望去似金丝猴头,故称“猴头菇”,又像刺猬,故又有“刺猬菌”之称。猴头菌是鲜美无比的山珍,菌肉鲜嫩,香醇可口,有“素中荤”之称。

猴头菇的形态特征

猴头菇,外形似猴子的头,因而得名。孢子透明无色,表面光滑,呈球形或近似球形,大小约

6.5

-

7.5

&

micro;

m×5×5.5。菌丝细胞壁薄,具横隔,有锁状联合。菌丝直径为10-20。是四大名菜(猴头、熊掌、海参、鱼翅)之一。子实体呈块状,扁半球形或头形,肉质,直径5-15cm,不分枝(与假猴头菌的区别)。新鲜时呈白色,干燥时变成褐色或淡棕色。子实体基部狭窄或略有短柄。菌刺密集下垂,覆盖整个子实体,肉刺圆筒形,刺长1-5cm,粗1-2mm,每一根细刺的表面都布满子实层,子实层上密集生长着担子及囊状体,但子上着生4个担孢子,并且野生的猴头菇一般成对生长。

猴头菇畸形怎么办?

猴头菇在栽培过程中,常由于通气不良,水分管理不当,或温度过高,湿度偏低等原因,引起子实体发育不良产生畸形。如生长中片面强调湿度,通风透气差,二氧化碳浓度超过0.1%时,就会不断刺激子实体基部产生分枝,形成珊瑚状,以致不能形成球状子实体,影响产品质量。若遇25℃以上的高温,加上空气湿度低时,则易出现不长菌刺的光秃形子实体。

防止和克服畸形猴头菇的主要办法是:出现珊瑚状子实体时,应加强通风透气,促进子实体健壮生长,其症状就能很快消除,对已形成珊瑚状的幼蕾,应立即将它连同表面的一层培养料一起挖去,条件适宜就能长出正常的子实体。产生光秃形于实体时,则要加强水分管理,采用向空间喷雾化水或地面洒水;以降低温度和补充水分。此外,由于菌种传代次数过多,种性退化,产生畸形猴头菇时,应采取提纯复壮,培育优良菌种,提高种性和纯度。

猴头菇栽培中,由于栽培管理生态失控,常出现畸形怪状菇体,直接降低商品价值和影响生产者经济效益,因此成为生产中的一个难点。这里介绍畸形菇类型、体态,发生原因及避免措施。

一、光秃无刺型:

菇体呈簇状分枝,个肥大,表面皱缩粗糙,无刺毛,肉质松脆,略黄褐色,香味正常。发生原因主要是温度偏高,湿度偏低,常在25℃情况下子实体水分蒸发量过大,而湿度又没及时跟上,致使不长刺毛,则形成光秃菇。预防办法:注意控温保湿,当气温超过25℃时,野外菇床栽培的,应早晚揭开盖膜通风,白天把两头盖膜打开,使其透气;畦沟灌水降低地温、空间喷洒雾化水增加湿度,保持相对湿度90%以上;并把荫棚遮盖物加厚,减少阳光透进,降低水分蒸发。

二、珊瑚丛集型:

菇体基部多次分枝丛集,形似珊瑚,明显可看到一条似根状的菌索与培养基相连。这种子实体有的在出菇期就死亡,有的能继续生长发育,小枝顶端不断膨胀,形成多个状态的小子实体。其原因主要是二氧化碳浓度沉积过多,刺激菌柄不断分化,抑制中心部位的发育,致使形成不规则的珊蝴状;也有的因为培养料中含有芳香化合物杀菌物质,使菌丝生长受到抑制或刺激;常因保温保湿,忽视通风换气,在这种饱和的湿度和静止空气条件下,逼使子实体向异常发展。预防办法:(1)加强通风换气,改善环境条件。(2)培养料选择时,注意剔除杉、松、樟、杨槐等含杀菌物质的树木。(3)已形成珊瑚状的子实体,在幼小时立即将它连同表面培养料一起刮掉,然后再行培养,还可照常出菇。

三、色泽异常型:

菇体色泽变黄,菌刺短而粗;有的子实体发红色,或幼菇开始到成熟均呈粉红色,其菇体味带苦。此类色变的原因,主要是温度偏低,常因秋冬季栽培,气温突降,子实发育生长阶段低于10℃,菇体便发红,并随着气温下降,色泽加深。有的因通风时,子实体受到直流风刺激,菇体萎黄。对色变的菇,应区别病因对症处理。因低温引起的,则在安排接种时,就要考虑到接种后25天左右,当地气温以不低14℃为妥,以此为界往前推算最佳接种期,即可回避低温所害。升温办法:野外畦栽可把盖膜盖密,中午气温高时通风,并把遮盖物拉稀,引光增温;同时尽量避免通风直吹菇体上,或在风口处的菇袋上,盖湿纱布。

四、萎缩霉烂型:

菇体前期长势正常,中间刺毛萎倒,菇体皱缩;有的菇体变褐发霉。前者常因温度过高,空气干燥,明显缺水,以致停止生长,逐渐萎缩干枯。应及时喷水空间,微量喷雾在菇体上使其恢复。如发现菇体霉烂的,则为病害或霉菌侵袭,应加强通风,降温。已出现霉烂的及时挖除,并局部涂抹3%的漂白粉水或1%白灰水,控制蔓延。


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  1. 模型: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com/twcms/model/
  2. 视图: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com/twcms/view/default/article_show.htm
  3. 控制器: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com/twcms/control/show_control.class.php
  4. 日志目录: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com/twcms/runtime/logs/
  5. 当前页面: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\index.php
  6. 当前时间: 2019-11-16 09:00:11
  7. 当前网协: 3.233.226.151
  8. 请求路径: /xnm/7626.html
  9. 运行时间: 0.2254
  10. 内存开销: 1.45 MB
  1. #0 [time:0.0002s] SET character_set_connection=utf8, character_set_results=utf8, character_set_client=binary, sql_mode=''
  2. #1 [time:0.0004s] SELECT * FROM tw_runtime WHERE k='cfg' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  3. #2 [time:0.0004s] SELECT * FROM tw_runtime WHERE k='cate_14' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  4. #3 [time:0.0005s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7626' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  5. #4 [time:0.0006s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article_data WHERE id='7626' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  6. #5 [time:0.0003s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article WHERE cid='14' AND id<'7626' ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 0,1 [explain type: range | rows: 436]
  7. #6 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7612' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  8. #7 [time:0.0002s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article WHERE cid='14' AND id>'7626' ORDER BY id ASC LIMIT 0,1 [explain type: range | rows: 18]
  9. #8 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7629' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  10. #9 [time:0.0004s] SELECT * FROM tw_kv WHERE k='navigate' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  11. #10 [time:0.0002s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 1,10 [explain type: index | rows: 11]
  12. #11 [time:0.0007s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7957' OR id='7956' OR id='7955' OR id='7954' OR id='7953' OR id='7952' OR id='7951' OR id='7950' OR id='7949' OR id='7948' [explain type: range | rows: 10]
  13. #12 [time:0.0002s] SELECT cid FROM tw_category ORDER BY orderby ASC [explain type: ALL | rows: 16]
  14. #13 [time:0.0004s] SELECT * FROM tw_category WHERE cid='1' OR cid='2' OR cid='3' OR cid='4' OR cid='5' OR cid='6' OR cid='7' OR cid='8' OR cid='9' OR cid='10' OR cid='11' OR cid='12' OR cid='13' OR cid='14' OR cid='15' OR cid='16' [explain type: ALL | rows: 16]
  15. #14 [time:0.0003s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 11,12 [explain type: index | rows: 23]
  16. #15 [time:0.0008s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7947' OR id='7946' OR id='7945' OR id='7944' OR id='7943' OR id='7942' OR id='7941' OR id='7940' OR id='7939' OR id='7938' OR id='7937' OR id='7936' [explain type: range | rows: 12]
  17. #16 [time:0.0005s] SELECT * FROM tw_runtime WHERE k='cate_1' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  18. #17 [time:0.0004s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article WHERE cid='1' ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 0,1 [explain type: ref | rows: 583]
  19. #18 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7929' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
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  25. #24 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7952' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  26. #25 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_runtime WHERE k='cate_4' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  27. #26 [time:0.0002s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article WHERE cid='4' ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 0,1 [explain type: ref | rows: 518]
  28. #27 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7922' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  29. #28 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_runtime WHERE k='cate_5' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  30. #29 [time:0.0002s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article WHERE cid='5' ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 0,1 [explain type: ref | rows: 546]
  31. #30 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7956' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  32. #31 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_runtime WHERE k='cate_6' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  33. #32 [time:0.0002s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article WHERE cid='6' ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 0,1 [explain type: ref | rows: 604]
  34. #33 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7919' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  35. #34 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_runtime WHERE k='cate_7' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  36. #35 [time:0.0002s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article WHERE cid='7' ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 0,1 [explain type: ref | rows: 544]
  37. #36 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7953' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  38. #37 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_runtime WHERE k='cate_8' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  39. #38 [time:0.0002s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article WHERE cid='8' ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 0,1 [explain type: ref | rows: 501]
  40. #39 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7954' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  41. #40 [time:0.0001s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 23,6 [explain type: index | rows: 29]
  42. #41 [time:0.0004s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7935' OR id='7934' OR id='7933' OR id='7932' OR id='7931' OR id='7930' [explain type: range | rows: 6]
  43. #42 [time:0.0004s] SELECT * FROM tw_kv WHERE k='tw_links' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  44. #43 [time:0.0002s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article WHERE cid='5' ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 0,1 [explain type: ref | rows: 546]
  45. #44 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7956' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  46. #45 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_runtime WHERE k='cate_9' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  47. #46 [time:0.0002s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article WHERE cid='9' ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 0,1 [explain type: ref | rows: 539]
  48. #47 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7946' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  49. #48 [time:0.0002s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article WHERE cid='6' ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 0,1 [explain type: ref | rows: 604]
  50. #49 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7919' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  51. #50 [time:0.0002s] SELECT id FROM tw_cms_article WHERE cid='3' ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 0,1 [explain type: ref | rows: 456]
  52. #51 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7952' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  1. #control => show
  2. #action => index
  3. #cid => 14
  4. #id => 7626
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      2. #1 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\kongphp.php
      3. #2 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\config\config.inc.php
      4. #3 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\base\base.func.php
      5. #4 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\base\core.class.php
      6. #5 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\base\debug.class.php
      7. #6 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\base\log.class.php
      8. #7 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\base\model.class.php
      9. #8 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\base\view.class.php
      10. #9 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\base\control.class.php
      11. #10 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\db\db.interface.php
      12. #11 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\db\db_mysql.class.php
      13. #12 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\cache\cache.interface.php
      14. #13 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\cache\cache_memcache.class.php
      15. #14 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\config\plugin.inc.php
      16. #15 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\plugin\editor_um\conf.php
      17. #16 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\plugin\tw_links\conf.php
      18. #17 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\runtime\twcms_control\parseurl_control.class.php
      19. #18 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\runtime\twcms_model\runtime_model.class.php
      20. #19 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\runtime\twcms_control\show_control.class.php
      21. #20 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\runtime\twcms_model\category_model.class.php
      22. #21 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\runtime\twcms_model\cms_content_model.class.php
      23. #22 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\runtime\twcms_view\default,article_show.htm.php
      24. #23 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\runtime\twcms_model\cms_content_data_model.class.php
      25. #24 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\showlink.php
      26. #25 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\runtime\twcms_model\kv_model.class.php
      27. #26 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\ext\utf8.class.php
      28. #27 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\tpl\sys_trace.php
      1. #0 utf8 类