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红树莓种植技术_农业网_农业新闻

时间:10-16来源:村村新闻作者:村村新闻

红树莓种植技术

“如果不怕刺,还可以摘到覆盆子,象小珊瑚珠攒成的小球,又酸又甜,色味都比桑椹要好得远。”鲁迅先生的《从百草园到三味书屋》一定都还记得。这种名叫覆盆子的植物,就是红树莓。那么怎样才能培植出小珊瑚珠一样的红树莓呢?

红树莓种植技术

1、建园:华东树莓可春栽也可秋栽,一般以11月中下旬或3月中下旬为宜,选择避风向阳、土质疏松、有机质含量高,土壤湿润不宜积水的地块建园,建园前应深耕平整,施农家肥2000~4000千克/亩。栽植方式以带状法,行距2米,株距0.4~0.8米,植穴规格30×30×30厘米,栽苗时注意保护基生芽不受损伤。

2、肥水:移栽前施足基肥,施农家肥每株3~5千克。生长期间结合松土除草,每年施追肥2~3次,氮肥为主,适量搭配磷钾肥。在3月施苗肥,4月施花肥,11月施越冬肥。每亩施人粪尿1500~2000千克。夏秋干旱时注意浇水

3、搭架:树莓枝条柔软,常易下垂到地面,或遇风易倒伏,影响产量和质量。4~5月新枝发生侧枝时,摘去顶芽促进侧枝生长,同时对侧枝摘心,促使其发生二次侧枝,枝多叶则茂,增加翌年结果母枝,增加产量。结果期要在每一植株旁立支柱,防止倒伏。

4、修剪:春季应及时剪除二年枝顶端干枯部分,促使留下的枝条发出强壮的结果枝。疏去基部过密和有病虫病虫枝,每株留7~8个二年生枝,保留合理密度,利于通风透光,保证高产和稳产。在采果后剪除二年生枝,疏去枝蘖和过密的基生枝,以控制园内的总枝量。

5、采收:树莓的采收时间为5月中旬至6月上旬,此时果实已充分发育且呈现绿色,尚未转红成熟,采收分批进行,采下后,除去梗、叶、花托和其它杂质,然后倒入沸水烫2~3分钟再捞出,随后摊晒或烘干。成品以粒完整、坚实色黄绿、味酸、无梗叶屑者为佳。

红树莓的病虫害防治和除草

在春季,植株先端和花序顶端幼嫩的花蕾,有轻度顶梢卷叶蛾危害,危害稍重时,喷施2000倍5%来福灵乳油或菊酯类农药,都可起到防治效果。

除草剂,甲草胺,广谱除草剂,适用杂草萌芽前喷土表,亩用43%乳油500克加水稀释100-150倍。草甘磷,适用深根性多年生禾本科杂草,亩用10%液剂1500-2500克,兑水40-50千克,喷草叶面。西马津,适用于一年生禾本科杂草和阔叶杂草,亩用50%可湿性粉剂15-20克加水50千克喷雾,有效期为2-3个月。沙土地用量4.5-7.5克。目前对出口冻果要求较严,应不用或少用农药。病虫害应根据当地实际情况,采用高效、无公害、符合绿色食品标准的农药,灵活及时处理。

可要果园周边种植些芸香,芸香的气味可有效驱除果蝇、金龟子等虫害。芸香别名也称七里香、香草、芸香草、诸葛草、香茅筋骨草、小香茅草、细叶茅草、野芸香草、石灰草、臭草等。

树莓的品种

1、托盘,高l~2米,枝上有翘,单叶,3~5掌状分裂,叶表近无毛,背面有短毛及小刺。

蓖穗密集下垂。果暗红色,有光。我国东北、西北、华北都有势布。

2、茅莓,

又名草莓子。复叶、小叶誊牧,叶先端钝,椭圆形。花梗长5~10厘米,果球形,直径1~1.5厘米,红色,无毛或疏柔毛,酸甜多汁,可食用,果期7—8月。分布于我国江西、四川、云南、山东、陕西等省。

3、红树莓,

又名覆盆子,复叶,小叶3

故,叶背白色,浆果近球形,直径1~1.4厘米,红色,紫红色或橙黄色,密被短绒毛,可食,果期8~9月。我国东北所栽培的品种均属于此类。

4、黑色树莓,复叶,小叶片5或3

枚,卵形,重锯齿,枝条呈紫红色,被有白蜡质。果实黑色。东北栽培的黑莓属于此种。

5、悬钩子,又名槭叶莓。茎上散生直刺,枝梢柔软,株丛扩展,单叶,3~5深裂,边缘有锐锯齿。果红色。野生于广西、广东、浙江、江苏、安徽等省。

树莓的生长环境

树莓根系分布较浅,不耐干旱,特别是花期及果熟期水分不足,直接影响浆果的产量与品质。但又不耐涝,由涝则烂根。所以选择土质疏松、肥沃、有机质含量高的土壤湿润又不积水处建园。

树莓适应性强,但栽培品种原产欧洲,适应冷凉,温暖的气候,东北地区要埋土防寒过冬。

树莓喜光,要光照充足,才能生长良好,产量高。

树莓耐土壤瘠薄,对高温反应敏感,遇高温天气要有遮荫措沲,寒地冬季要埋土防寒。

红树莓只是庞大的树莓家族中的一员,除了红树莓还有茅莓、黑色树莓、槭叶莓等等,每一种树莓又还可以根据产地、果实大小等分为许多小类。尽管如此,大多数树莓对环境的要求都是类似的。所以种植红树莓也可以多参考其他树莓的相关的种植技术。


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  1. 模型: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com/twcms/model/
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