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猴头菇病虫害的防治_农业网_农业新闻

时间:10-16来源:村村新闻作者:村村新闻

猴头菇病虫害的防治

猴头菇(学名:Hericium

erinaceus;英文名:Lion's

Mane

Mushroom,Bearded

Tooth

Mushroom),又叫猴头菌,只因外形酷似猴头而得名。猴蘑,猴头,猴菇,是中国传统的名贵菜肴,肉嫩、味香、鲜美可口。是四大名菜(猴头、熊掌、燕窝、鱼翅)之一。有“山珍猴头、海味鱼翅”之称。这种齿菌科的菌类,菌伞表面长有毛茸状肉刺,长约1~3厘米,它的子实体圆而厚,新鲜时白色,干后由浅黄至浅褐色,基部狭窄或略有短柄,上部膨大,直径3.5~10厘米,远远望去似金丝猴头,故称“猴头菇”,又像刺猬,故又有“刺猬菌”之称。猴头菌是鲜美无比的山珍,菌肉鲜嫩,香醇可口,有“素中荤”之称。

猴头菇作为食材,是美味菜肴。同时,猴头菇也是药材,用猴头菇这一药材制成的药品叫猴菇片,在《中华人民共和国卫生部药品标准》第15册207页有记载:“本品为猴头菇经加工制成的片剂,具有养胃和中的功效,用于胃、十二指肠溃疡及慢性胃炎的治疗。”另外,现代医学和药理学的很多研究对猴头菇多糖的药用功效概括为提高免疫力、抗肿瘤、抗衰老、降血脂等多种生理功能。

中医认为,猴头菇性平味甘,有利五脏、助消化、滋补身体等功效。20

世纪

70

年代以来,现代医学陆续证明猴头菌有良好的药用价值,临床应用表明,猴头菇可治疗消化不良、胃溃疡、胃窦炎、胃痛、胃胀及神经衰弱等疾病。如果是轻度神经衰弱患者,食用猴头菇不失为较好的辅助治疗。在临床应用上面,采用猴头菇进行治疗,对于轻度或是重度神经衰弱均可取得较为显著理想的疗效。另外,患者应该培养起较好的生活习惯,如晚饭后多散步,平常多运动等等,这些对于症状的恢复均有很好的帮助。

猴头菇病虫害的防治

病虫害是猴头菌生产中经常遇到的问题。大多数是由于操作管理粗放,环境卫生差和高温高湿的气候条件引起的。其杂菌主要有青霉、木霉、曲霉、毛霉、根霉等。虫害有螨类、菌蝇和跳虫等。

防治上除严格做好培养料的灭菌,环境的清洁卫生和栽培室消毒处理外,栽培管理过程中应注意调节栽培室的温、湿度和通气条件。当出现杂菌感染应及时进行处理。瓶栽的瓶面污染杂菌时,应及时把杂菌部位连同培养料挖去,填上新的培养料,重新灭菌接种;若在瓶面出现少量的点状杂菌,用酒精棉或灼烧的铁片烧烫杀灭,然后喷0.2%的多菌灵药液控制。塑料袋局部出现杂菌,可用2%的甲醛和5%的石碳酸混合液注射感染部位以控制蔓延,其未感染部位仍能正常长出子实体。对于严重污染杂菌的料袋则要及时搬出烧毁,以防孢子扩散蔓延。害虫主要采用敌敌畏药液拌蜂蜜或糖醋麦皮进行诱杀,或用0.4%的敌百虫,0.1%的鱼藤精在每批子实体采收后喷洒防治,也可用1%的敌敌畏和0.2%的乐果喷洒地面和墙脚驱杀害虫。

怎样识别有毒野生蘑菇:以野生菌外形特征来看,①形状奇怪,颜色鲜艳的有毒;②菌盖上生刺、疣、菌柄上同时生有菌环和菌托的有毒;③菌柄(根)不生蛆、不生虫、鸟不啄,鼠兽不吃的有毒;④嗅之有臭味,无菌香味,味道辛辣,极苦的有毒;⑤菌体受伤伤口变色、液汁混浊的有毒(见手青、黑见手等常见菌除外);⑥生长于阴暗潮湿和污秽地方的野生菌有时带毒;⑦与葱、蒜、大米、银器、灯芯共煮呈现乌黑色的有毒等。实践证明这些经验不是绝对的,由于许多食用菌和毒菌非常相似,有的可吃野生菌也会出现这些现象,专家指出,根据传统的经验和方法来识别毒菌和食用菌也是造成误食毒菌中毒的原因。所以凡是野生蘑菇,市民最好都不要采食。如果误食有毒野生菌,出现中毒现象,比如恶心、呕吐、腹泻、狂躁不安、四肢麻木、呼吸困难、哭笑失态等,要立即采取急救措施,就近送到医院诊断治疗,治疗越早,死亡率越低。而采取催吐、洗胃、导泻、灌肠减少毒物吸收是减轻病情、降低死亡率的主要措施。


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  1. 模型: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com/twcms/model/
  2. 视图: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com/twcms/view/default/article_show.htm
  3. 控制器: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com/twcms/control/show_control.class.php
  4. 日志目录: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com/twcms/runtime/logs/
  5. 当前页面: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\index.php
  6. 当前时间: 2019-11-16 08:59:44
  7. 当前网协: 3.233.226.151
  8. 请求路径: /bdc/7624.html
  9. 运行时间: 0.2425
  10. 内存开销: 1.45 MB
  1. #0 [time:0.0002s] SET character_set_connection=utf8, character_set_results=utf8, character_set_client=binary, sql_mode=''
  2. #1 [time:0.0004s] SELECT * FROM tw_runtime WHERE k='cfg' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
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  32. #31 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_runtime WHERE k='cate_6' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
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  38. #37 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_runtime WHERE k='cate_8' LIMIT 1 [explain type: const | rows: 1]
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  45. #44 [time:0.0003s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7956' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
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  52. #51 [time:0.0002s] SELECT * FROM tw_cms_article WHERE id='7952' [explain type: const | rows: 1]
  1. #control => show
  2. #action => index
  3. #cid => 15
  4. #id => 7624
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      4. #3 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\base\base.func.php
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      12. #11 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\db\db_mysql.class.php
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      15. #14 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\config\plugin.inc.php
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      25. #24 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\showlink.php
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      28. #27 D:\www\xumu\pc\www.clhnews.com\twcms\kongphp\tpl\sys_trace.php
      1. #0 utf8 类